Adjustable Pliers

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This is a product assessment for Adjustable Pliers. Many shoppers don"t straightaway think of eBay when it comes to Adjustable Pliers, but in fact eBay is amongst the top three retailers in the nations marketplace. Be amazed with the items you will discover here at Architectural Salvage.

VINTAGE BOKER USA 6507 10 ADJUSTABLE PLIERS TOOL TREE BRAND MECHANIC
vintage boker usa 6507 10 adjustable pliers tool tree brand mechanic
$10.99
quality
Vice Grip The Original 10R Adjustable Locking Pliers
vice grip the original 10r adjustable locking pliers
$5.00
quality
Old Chromavon Adjustable Pliers Tool
old chromavon adjustable pliers tool
$14.88
quality
Locking Adjustable Wrench Plier Tool Lever Rounded Off Jaw Grip Nuts for Plumber
locking adjustable wrench plier tool lever rounded off jaw grip nuts for plumber
$31.97
quality
Vintage 65 Drop Forged Slip Joint Pliers Mechanic Tool Square Jaw Adjustable
vintage 65 drop forged slip joint pliers mechanic tool square jaw adjustable
$8.75
quality
VINTAGE DIAMOND Diamalloy GROOVE JOINT HL110P pump adjustable PLIERShorseshoe
vintage diamond diamalloy groove joint hl110p pump adjustable pliershorseshoe
$18.99
quality
Vintage Diamalloy HL110 Adjustable Groove Joint Plier Horseshoe LogotoolDuluth
vintage diamalloy hl110 adjustable groove joint plier horseshoe logotoolduluth
$16.99
quality
Channel Lock 420 Slip Groove Adjustable Pliers US CAN 1953 95 Inches
channel lock 420 slip groove adjustable pliers us can 1953 95 inches
$14.35
quality
W GERMANY Wire Stripping Pliers V Cutting Edge Adjustable Screw Electrician
w germany wire stripping pliers v cutting edge adjustable screw electrician
$17.85
quality
4 Vintage CEE TEE Slip Joint PliersHarrolds 8 Adjustable Wrfench Plus
4 vintage cee tee slip joint pliersharrolds 8 adjustable wrfench plus
$8.99
quality
OTC 4839 Adjustable Piston Ring Expander Pliers New Free Ship
otc 4839 adjustable piston ring expander pliers new free ship
$16.66
quality
Vintage Linesman Adjustable Pliers Wire Cutters 7 Inch Western Germany F
vintage linesman adjustable pliers wire cutters 7 inch western germany f
$12.45
quality
VTG WILLIAMS 1519A IGNITION SLIP JOINT 15I9 A ADJUSTABLE MADE USA 5 PLIERS
vtg williams 1519a ignition slip joint 15i9 a adjustable made usa 5 pliers
$9.49
quality
Craftsman Vintage Ignition Pliers Adjustable
craftsman vintage ignition pliers adjustable
$13.99
quality
2 Craftsman Adjustable Locking Pliers
2 craftsman adjustable locking pliers
$18.00
quality
Vintage Marwitz Germany Optical Pliers 929Z Eyeglass Adjustment Tool Rare
vintage marwitz germany optical pliers 929z eyeglass adjustment tool rare
$9.95
quality
Vintage Marwitz Germany Optical Pliers 924Z Eyeglass Adjustment Tool Rare
vintage marwitz germany optical pliers 924z eyeglass adjustment tool rare
$9.95
quality
VINTAGE EIFEL GEARED PLIERWRENCH PLIERS WRENCH ADJUSTABLE
vintage eifel geared plierwrench pliers wrench adjustable
$24.95
quality
Vintage American Eifel Geared Plierench adjustable pliers wrench Lot Of 3
vintage american eifel geared plierench adjustable pliers wrench lot of 3
$34.00
quality
Vintage Proto 4 piece lot torque wrench adjustable pliers punch bit
vintage proto 4 piece lot torque wrench adjustable pliers punch bit
$19.99
quality
Model A T Ford Tools Adjustible Wrench and Pliers VG Antique Collectable
model a t ford tools adjustible wrench and pliers vg antique collectable
$45.98
quality
Lot of 2 Cen Tech slip joint groove pliers 9 3 4 adjustable crescent wrench 10
lot of 2 cen tech slip joint groove pliers 9 3 4 adjustable crescent wrench 10
$21.90
quality
VINTAGE DIAMALLOY HANDYBOY PLIERS ADJUSTABLE WRENCH COMBO MULTI TOOL USA
vintage diamalloy handyboy pliers adjustable wrench combo multi tool usa
$55.00
quality
Vintage Eagle Claw Wrench Adjustable Slip Joint Pliers PAT 1912
vintage eagle claw wrench adjustable slip joint pliers pat 1912
$14.99
quality
11 OLD  VINTAGE ADJUSTABLE  PLIER + WRENCH TOOL MANY STYLES PARROT +
11 old vintage adjustable plier + wrench tool many styles parrot +
$32.99
quality
Vintage Eyeglass Adjustment Tool by Bausch  Lomb Optical Pliers USA
vintage eyeglass adjustment tool by bausch lomb optical pliers usa
$9.50
quality
Proto Tools USA adjustable slip joint pliers No 278
proto tools usa adjustable slip joint pliers no 278
$10.99
quality
Vintage Dunlap Adjustable Lever Jaw Pliers Tool 9 1 8 USA
vintage dunlap adjustable lever jaw pliers tool 9 1 8 usa
$5.99
quality
2 New VTG Stanley Groove Joint Pliers 10 Adjustable 84 139 Mechanic Tool Japan
2 new vtg stanley groove joint pliers 10 adjustable 84 139 mechanic tool japan
$49.99
quality
Vintage 10 WIZARD WATER PUMP PLIERS Slip joint Adjustable Nice
vintage 10 wizard water pump pliers slip joint adjustable nice
$21.99
quality
Vintage 2 Pc CHANNEL LOCK Adjustable Pliers  420   810 MEADVILLE PA USA
vintage 2 pc channel lock adjustable pliers 420 810 meadville pa usa
$15.00
quality
VIntage Adjustable Pliers PEXTO PSW 7 In Jaw Wire Cutter w screwdriver handle
vintage adjustable pliers pexto psw 7 in jaw wire cutter w screwdriver handle
$12.00
quality
Channel Lock 6 3 4 Adjustable Pliers 426
channel lock 6 3 4 adjustable pliers 426
$18.00
quality
Used large Aluminum Kerr Arc 50 A Snap Ring PliersScrew AdjustableMechanic
used large aluminum kerr arc 50 a snap ring pliersscrew adjustablemechanic
$19.99
quality
VINTAGE CARLSON 7 half INCH ADJUSTABLE PARROT HEAD PLIERS
vintage carlson 7 half inch adjustable parrot head pliers
$14.95
quality
Vintage Craftsman 5 Adjustable Pliers chrome 3 click craftsman tool mechanics
vintage craftsman 5 adjustable pliers chrome 3 click craftsman tool mechanics
$4.99
quality
Vintage Harold USA Adjustable Pliers
vintage harold usa adjustable pliers
$7.99
quality
Antique Amer Plierench 8 half  Eifel Geared adjustable pliers wrench USA NICE
antique amer plierench 8 half eifel geared adjustable pliers wrench usa nice
$39.99
quality
Vintage Marwitz Germany Optical Pliers 919Z Eyeglass Adjustment Tool Rare
vintage marwitz germany optical pliers 919z eyeglass adjustment tool rare
$9.95
quality
Vintage Eyeglass Adjustment Tool Marwitz Germany Optical Pliers 924Z VGC
vintage eyeglass adjustment tool marwitz germany optical pliers 924z vgc
$9.75
quality
A D TOOL  WRENCH Co KANT SLIP QUICK ADJUST PLIERS VINTAGE TOOL WRENCH
a d tool wrench co kant slip quick adjust pliers vintage tool wrench
$12.50
quality
Vintage Kraeuter Plier USA Tools Ball joint adjustable pliers
vintage kraeuter plier usa tools ball joint adjustable pliers
$10.98
quality
Powr Grip No610 locking adjustable pliers vintage   SE 106P
powr grip no610 locking adjustable pliers vintage se 106p
$12.00
quality
Vintage Indestro Vanadium 3410 Adjustable Slip Joint Ignition Pliers 5 Long
vintage indestro vanadium 3410 adjustable slip joint ignition pliers 5 long
$12.99
quality
Vintage Sears Craftsman P4527 P 4527 USa pump adjustable tongue in groove pliers
vintage sears craftsman p4527 p 4527 usa pump adjustable tongue in groove pliers
$14.99
quality
Vintage Stanley 8 quarter  Adjustable Pliers with soft grip
vintage stanley 8 quarter adjustable pliers with soft grip
$11.99
quality
vintage adjustable Pliers 20
vintage adjustable pliers 20
$13.19
quality
Plomb No235 Ignition pliersAdjustableV PLVMB V Logo4 half  NICE PL12018
plomb no235 ignition pliersadjustablev plvmb v logo4 half nice pl12018
$19.95
quality
Vintage Tru Fit Slip Joint Adjustable Pliers Tool 6 half
vintage tru fit slip joint adjustable pliers tool 6 half
$3.99
quality
Nice Proto Usa No 278 8 long Adjustable Slip Joint Pliers tool
nice proto usa no 278 8 long adjustable slip joint pliers tool
$14.00
quality
Vintage Forged USA Slip Joint Adjustable Pliers 6 3 4 Long
vintage forged usa slip joint adjustable pliers 6 3 4 long
$7.49
quality
Vintage S K SK 15 Piece Tool Set Pliers Adjustable Wrench Sockets Screwdrivers
vintage s k sk 15 piece tool set pliers adjustable wrench sockets screwdrivers
$19.95
quality
A D TOOL  WRENCH Co KANT SLIP QUICK ADJUST PLIERS VINTAGE TOOL WRENCH
a d tool wrench co kant slip quick adjust pliers vintage tool wrench
$25.00
quality
Antique Early Footprint Angled Adjustable Pipe Pliers
antique early footprint angled adjustable pipe pliers
$10.00
quality
Channellock No 430 Adjustable Pliers Channellocks USA Pat 2592927192805
channellock no 430 adjustable pliers channellocks usa pat 2592927192805
$15.00
quality
VINTAGE BLUE GRASS ADJUSTABLE PLIERS TOOL 511 10 5 SIZES
vintage blue grass adjustable pliers tool 511 10 5 sizes
$3.95
quality
Craftman Slip joint adjustable pliers made in the USA cobra style
craftman slip joint adjustable pliers made in the usa cobra style
$9.99
quality
CRAFTSMAN TOOLS 5 ADJUSTABLE ANGLE HEAD SLIP JOINT IGNITION PLIERS P 4513 USA
craftsman tools 5 adjustable angle head slip joint ignition pliers p 4513 usa
$10.89
quality
Vintage CRAFTSMAN 5 ADJUSTABLE ANGLE HEAD SLIP JOINT IGNITION PLIERS 4513 USA
vintage craftsman 5 adjustable angle head slip joint ignition pliers 4513 usa
$11.11
quality
Vintage Tool BMC No 9 Pressure Lock Adjustable Vice Grip Wrench Pliers 0703
vintage tool bmc no 9 pressure lock adjustable vice grip wrench pliers 0703
$14.40
quality
Lot Vintage Stanley  Super Adjustable Crescent Wrenches and Needle Nose Pliers
lot vintage stanley super adjustable crescent wrenches and needle nose pliers
$14.99
quality
VINTAGE PROTO TOOLS WATERPUMP SLIP JOINT ADJUSTABLE PLIERS MADE IN USA
vintage proto tools waterpump slip joint adjustable pliers made in usa
$12.00
quality
Vintage Powr Kraft Slip Joint Adjustable Pliers Tool  6 3 4 Long
vintage powr kraft slip joint adjustable pliers tool 6 3 4 long
$8.99
quality
Vintage Slip Joint Adjustable Pliers Tool  9 7 16 Long
vintage slip joint adjustable pliers tool 9 7 16 long
$8.99
quality
CRAFTSMAN ADJUSTABLE PLUMBER PLIERS N INSIDE A SQUARE TAKE APART TO ADJUST
craftsman adjustable plumber pliers n inside a square take apart to adjust
$18.00
quality
Vintage Channel Lock 440 Pliers Adjustable Made In The USA
vintage channel lock 440 pliers adjustable made in the usa
$13.49
quality
Lot 4 Crescent Tools USA adjustable 8 10 wrenches linesman slip joint pliers
lot 4 crescent tools usa adjustable 8 10 wrenches linesman slip joint pliers
$28.90
quality
PC 1243 Power Track Vintage Adjustable Jaw Tongue and Groove Pliers
pc 1243 power track vintage adjustable jaw tongue and groove pliers
$14.99
quality
CRESCENT ADJUSTABLE PLIERS RT 27 US MADE nice CONDITION 704
crescent adjustable pliers rt 27 us made nice condition 704
$8.40
quality
Vintage Craftsman Robo Grip Pliers  Adjustable Box End Pocket Socket Wrench Lot
vintage craftsman robo grip pliers adjustable box end pocket socket wrench lot
$16.49
quality
Vintage Channellock 420 Meadville PA USA1953 patent date tooladjustable pliers
vintage channellock 420 meadville pa usa1953 patent date tooladjustable pliers
$15.99
quality
Vintage Craftsman Soft Grip Adjustable Pliers Wrench WF A945379 USA
vintage craftsman soft grip adjustable pliers wrench wf a945379 usa
$14.99
quality
Vice Grip 10R Adjustable Locking 8 Pliers Made in USA
vice grip 10r adjustable locking 8 pliers made in usa
$5.00
quality
Huge Channel Lock Pliers Adjustable Thumb Screw 38 Vintage Tool ForestHill Ca
huge channel lock pliers adjustable thumb screw 38 vintage tool foresthill ca
$125.00
quality
vtg tool detroit stamping co locking adjustable c clamp pliers
vtg tool detroit stamping co locking adjustable c clamp pliers
$12.99
quality
Vintage Champion DeArment 420 Channellock Adjustable Tongue and Groove Pliers
vintage champion dearment 420 channellock adjustable tongue and groove pliers
$13.99
quality
Vintage McKaig Hatch Slip Joint Pliers No 86 Adjustable 9 half  Tongue
vintage mckaig hatch slip joint pliers no 86 adjustable 9 half tongue
$9.35
quality
Diamond Duluth USA N16 Adjustable 6 half  Slip Joint Pliers
diamond duluth usa n16 adjustable 6 half slip joint pliers
$9.95
quality
Vintage Adjustable Pliers by BMC Manufacturing Corp of Binghampton New York
vintage adjustable pliers by bmc manufacturing corp of binghampton new york
$5.99
quality
CRAFTSMAN DRUM BRAKE SPRING TOOL ADJUSTER PLIERS P9 46947 USA
craftsman drum brake spring tool adjuster pliers p9 46947 usa
$14.95
quality
UTICA TOOLS 511 10 10 LONG SLIP JOINT ADJUSTABLE CUTTERS PLIERS UTICA NYUSA
utica tools 511 10 10 long slip joint adjustable cutters pliers utica nyusa
$12.99
quality
Small Open End Wrench and Adjustable Plier Tools Vintage
small open end wrench and adjustable plier tools vintage
$9.75
quality
Vintage Proto No234 Multi Adjustable Compound Action Pliers free shipping
vintage proto no234 multi adjustable compound action pliers free shipping
$9.99
quality
OLD VINTAGE BIG 10 K310 DIAMOND DULUTH USA NICKELED ADJUSTABLE PLIERS MINT
old vintage big 10 k310 diamond duluth usa nickeled adjustable pliers mint
$12.95
quality
K16 Motor Spec Duluth USA Slip Joint Adjustable Pliers
k16 motor spec duluth usa slip joint adjustable pliers
$9.95
quality
PRE OWNED HEYCO No 301 Germany Adjustable Pliers Wrench Chrom Vanadium
pre owned heyco no 301 germany adjustable pliers wrench chrom vanadium
$23.99
quality
Vintage Dunlap Adjustable Pliers Tool 8 11 16
vintage dunlap adjustable pliers tool 8 11 16
$5.99
quality
Vintage Tru Fit Slip Joint Adjustable Pliers Tool 6 half
vintage tru fit slip joint adjustable pliers tool 6 half
$5.99
quality
Vintage CRAFTSMAN Adjustable Slip Joint Laminated Pliers Heavy Duty 45753 USA
vintage craftsman adjustable slip joint laminated pliers heavy duty 45753 usa
$7.49
quality
Vtg EIFEL FLASH PLIERENCH 8half  B 22 Adjustable Pliers Pat1916
vtg eifel flash plierench 8half b 22 adjustable pliers pat1916
$18.19
quality

Vintage Nipper Tool Pliers Adjust Teeth Saw Hacksaw
vintage nipper tool pliers adjust teeth saw hacksaw
$26.99
quality
VINTAGE DIAMALLOY HANDYBOY PLIERS ADJUSTABLE WRENCH COMBO MULTI TOOL USA
vintage diamalloy handyboy pliers adjustable wrench combo multi tool usa
$55.00
quality
Vintage American Eifel Geared Plierench adjustable pliers wrench Lot Of 3
vintage american eifel geared plierench adjustable pliers wrench lot of 3
$34.00
quality
PRE OWNED HEYCO No 301 Germany Adjustable Pliers Wrench Chrom Vanadium
pre owned heyco no 301 germany adjustable pliers wrench chrom vanadium
$23.99
quality
SNAP ON TOOLS TIE ROD ADJUSTING LOCK PLIERS  YA2222 0505
snap on tools tie rod adjusting lock pliers ya2222 0505
$34.00
quality
Old Antique Vintage EIFEL FLASH 5 2 16 patent adjustable wrench tool plier
old antique vintage eifel flash 5 2 16 patent adjustable wrench tool plier
$27.99
quality
VINTAGE EIFEL GEARED PLIERWRENCH PLIERS WRENCH ADJUSTABLE
vintage eifel geared plierwrench pliers wrench adjustable
$24.95
quality
Lot 4 Crescent Tools USA adjustable 8 10 wrenches linesman slip joint pliers
lot 4 crescent tools usa adjustable 8 10 wrenches linesman slip joint pliers
$28.90
quality
Vintage 8 half  33 Eifel Geared PLIERENCH Adjustable Pliers CHICAGO ILL
vintage 8 half 33 eifel geared plierench adjustable pliers chicago ill
$39.99
quality
11 OLD  VINTAGE ADJUSTABLE  PLIER + WRENCH TOOL MANY STYLES PARROT +
11 old vintage adjustable plier + wrench tool many styles parrot +
$32.99
quality
Vintage Blacksmith Tool Antique Adjustable Slip Joint Pliers
vintage blacksmith tool antique adjustable slip joint pliers
$55.00
quality
Model A T Ford Tools Adjustible Wrench and Pliers VG Antique Collectable
model a t ford tools adjustible wrench and pliers vg antique collectable
$45.98
quality
HOT Outdoor Gear Multi Tool Set Adjustable Wrench Screwdriver Pliers Knife
hot outdoor gear multi tool set adjustable wrench screwdriver pliers knife
$22.17
quality
Crescent CeeTee 8 Combination Slip Joint Adjustable Pliers NEW OLD STOCK USA
crescent ceetee 8 combination slip joint adjustable pliers new old stock usa
$25.95
quality
SNAP ON TOOLS TIE ROD ADJUSTING LOCK PLIERS  YA2222 87M
snap on tools tie rod adjusting lock pliers ya2222 87m
$34.00
quality
Vintage Petersen Vise Grip Locking Pliers Sliding Adjustable Clamp 310R
vintage petersen vise grip locking pliers sliding adjustable clamp 310r
$75.00
quality
Vintage SH Red Devil 10 Slip Joint Adjustable Pliers No 925 USA VERY NICE
vintage sh red devil 10 slip joint adjustable pliers no 925 usa very nice
$28.50
quality
Antique or Vintage VANOX Nipper Tool Pliers Adjust Teeth Saw Hacksaw
antique or vintage vanox nipper tool pliers adjust teeth saw hacksaw
$25.00
quality
WB Co Antique Adjustable Wood Handle 11  Steel Tool Pliers
wb co antique adjustable wood handle 11 steel tool pliers
$20.00
quality
Vintage 8 in Diamalloy DH18 Handyboy Slip Joint Pliers Adjustable Wrench Combo
vintage 8 in diamalloy dh18 handyboy slip joint pliers adjustable wrench combo
$130.50
quality
Vintage Diamalloy 4 Adjustable Wrench Diamond Calk Horseshoe tool + 5in Pliers
vintage diamalloy 4 adjustable wrench diamond calk horseshoe tool + 5in pliers
$49.99
quality
JOB LOT SNAP ON TOOLS INC 8 ADJUSTABLEDRIVE RATCHETPLIERSWRENCHES ETC
job lot snap on tools inc 8 adjustabledrive ratchetplierswrenches etc
$96.91
quality
1920s HERBRAND Adjustable No167 Ignition Pliers Midget Van Chrome
1920s herbrand adjustable no167 ignition pliers midget van chrome
$55.00
quality
Diamalloy Diamond Tools 7 Piece Adjustable Wrenches Pliers USA Duluth Tools
diamalloy diamond tools 7 piece adjustable wrenches pliers usa duluth tools
$84.99
quality
Lot of 2 Vintage DECKERS HOLDEM PIG HOG RINGER PLIERS 8 7 Adjustable Spring
lot of 2 vintage deckers holdem pig hog ringer pliers 8 7 adjustable spring
$22.75
quality
BILLINGS  SPENCER CO B MODEL FH 6 ADJUSTABLE WRENCH  PLIERS K MODEL T A
billings spencer co b model fh 6 adjustable wrench pliers k model t a
$30.00
quality
Vintage Spear  Jackson Brass Backed Back Saw+Tool Pliers Adjust Teeth Saw Hacks
vintage spear jackson brass backed back saw+tool pliers adjust teeth saw hacks
$99.00
quality
Mixed Lot 33 Rusty Hand Tools Adjustable Wrenches Visegrip Locking Pliers etc
mixed lot 33 rusty hand tools adjustable wrenches visegrip locking pliers etc
$28.99
quality

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Adjustable Pliers

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Irwin GrooveLock Adjustable Pliers New vs Original Comparison

The 3-D printing revolution: dreams made real, one layer at a time.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Joshua Pearce takes unusual satisfaction in strolling through
Walmart. The shelves laden with toys, household items, tools and
clothing inspire in him a certain smugness, a pride in American
entrepreneurship. But it's not because Pearce admires the chain as
an empire built by a
self-made man
 nhombre que ha triunfado por su propio esfuerzo

 n

 n
. Pearce swells with pride at Walmart
because the store is full of mass-manufactured objects that he could
make himself.

"I take great pleasure--and my wife teases me about
it--walking though Walmart and saying, 'I could print that, I could
print that, I could print that,'" Pearce says. Pearce is at
the forefront of what may be the next manufacturing revolution. Using a
technique known as 3-D printing, regular people can now make goods
typically produced in huge quantities in factories overseas. Need a mug?
A
tape dispenser

? A chess piece? A pair of shoes? It's as simple as
pressing the print key.

3-D printing builds objects by piling up successive layers of
material, hence its more technical
moniker

, "
additive
manufacturing

." You start by designing your product on a computer
screen with drafting software. That design then goes through a program
that slices it up, translating it into a stack of two-dimensional
layers. The printer constructs the object by depositing the first layer
of material--such as molten plastic that hardens--and then another and
another, gradually creating the desired shape. As the printer head moves
back and forth, your 3-D vision becomes reality.

The last few years have seen an explosion in the sale of personal
3-D printers. Like computers, the machines were once found only in
well-funded academic, government and industrial settings. Available
since the late 1980s, these machines cost tens of thousands of dollars
and primarily printed prototypes. But now anyone can send a design to
the 3-D printing equivalent of Kinko's to have any number of copies
made. And home printers, in most cases smaller than a washing machine,
are available for around $400 to $4,000. In 2011 alone, annual sales of
personal 3-D printers grew by almost 300 percent, to more than 23,000
units worldwide. People are printing jewelry, smartphone cases,
headphones, lamps--even food. Many herald 3-D printing as a game
changer, a "disruptive" technology that will turn traditional
manufacturing on its head. But the technology is also at the peak of
hype.

"
Everybody's talking

 about it right now," says Hod
Lipson, an engineer and computer scientist at
Cornell University
 mainly at Ithaca, N.Y.; with land-grant, state, and private support; coeducational; chartered 1865, opened 1868. It was named for Ezra Cornell, who donated $500,000 and a tract of land. With the help of state senator Andrew D.
.
"It could be huge or it could just be a blip."

Whether 3-D printing turns out to be a mere blip or a battering ram
that renders present-day manufacturing unrecognizable remains to be
seen. For now, there is no doubt that the technology is a powerful tool.
It eliminates the time and expense of creating complicated, intricate
objects. It can also remove the "mass" from mass manufacturing
by making a limited run of a product affordable. Anyone can produce
small batches, or even a batch of one. The technology democratizes
innovation, says Lipson. If you can think it, you can probably print it.

Stuff abounds

Still, envisioning what exactly 3-D printers will deliver is
difficult. In some respects it is like trying to imagine back in the
1960s the role computers would play in people's lives today. If you
had asked someone then what was so special about computers, you would
probably hear about how fast they can do calculations. Their pervasive
role today--not just in number-crunching but in banking, communication,
entertainment and more-would have been hard for most to foresee.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

One thing does seem certain: "I think initially," says
Lipson, "we'll have a lot more junk."

Junk proliferates on Thingiverse, a website created by 3-D printer
manufacturer MakerBot where people upload and share their designs. There
are specs for heart-shaped charms, models of the
Eiffel Tower
 structure designed by A. G. Eiffel and erected in the Champ-de-Mars for the Paris exposition of 1889. The tower is 984 ft (300 m) high and consists of an iron framework supported on four masonry piers, from which rise four columns uniting to form one
 and a
plastic octopus wearing a monocle and top hat. Another site devotes
itself to downloadable designs that enable people to create the
intricate, blocky structures found in the computer game Minecraft.

"There is a lot of stuff that has no value, no improvement for
humanity," says Pearce, a materials scientist and engineer at

Michigan Technological University

 in Houghton. "There is a possible

moral hazard

 that we will make a lot more junk."

But among the clutter, there are also plenty of utilitarian items:
shoehorns, tie hangers,
pliers

n a tool of pincer design with jaws of varying shapes; used for holding, bending, stretching, contouring, and cutting.

pliers, contouring,
n
 and boxes customized for carrying
batteries, ammunition, pills and
playing cards
 parts of a set or deck, used in playing various games of chance or skill. The origin of playing cards is unknown, and almost as many theories exist as there are historians of the subject.
. Replacement parts
abound, including flushing mechanisms for toilets, kitchen stove knobs
and a cap for a
Jack Daniel's

 bottle.

A capacity for creating tchotchkes and everyday items, though,
doesn't mean a technology can't also be revolutionary. Because
the approach is amenable to a variety of materials, including metals,
concrete and even living cells (SN: 1/26/08, p. 56), it is poised to
lead to entirely new products. 3-D printing is already changing the way
doctors design prosthetics and is prodding engineers, architects and
designers to think differently about the construction and function of
car parts, airplanes and even whole buildings.

"Here's why I think this is real," Lipson says.
"It has to do with what makes for an industrial revolution.
Something that used to be a major factor in cost came out of the
equation."

When the steam engine came along, the cost of power plummeted. You
didn't need expensive animals to do mechanical work. Networked
computers did the same thing for the cost of communication, Lipson says.
It became virtually free to send information. Additive manufacturing
also removes something that was once expensive. "With 3-D printers,
the cost of manufacturing complexity goes to zero" Lipson says.
"Complexity is now free."

Complexity for nothing

Traditional approaches for creating complex objects remove
material; they are
subtractive
  
adj.
1. Producing or involving subtraction.

2. Of or being a color produced by light passing through or reflecting off a colorant, such as a filter or pigment, that absorbs certain wavelengths and transmits or
. Blades, abrasives, lasers or other
cutting tools
whittle away

 at a solid block, carving out fine features.
Subtractive approaches can create exquisitely complicated items, but
that complexity comes at a cost: The more intricate the object, the more
time and advanced skills required to make it.

Additive manufacturing renders irrelevant the problem of getting a
tool into a tight internal nook or cranny. Because 3-D printers build by
setting down material as they go, a printed object can have delicate
lacelike features or strange curving parts, like the antlers on a model
deer head recently printed by one of Pearce's students.

In some cases, separate printed parts are pieced together. But 3-D
printing can also create objects with multiple moving parts in one fell
swoop. Take something as seemingly basic as an adjustable wrench. By
leaving gaps in the right places, a printer head sweeping back and forth
can print, in place, the threaded knob that opens and closes the wrench.

Walter Holemans, a rocket scientist who runs a small aerospace
engineering firm in Silver Spring, Md., invented a new type of boat
rudder and brought it to life via 3-D printing. The rudder has both
moving parts and a slender curved internal spring, but was printed all
at once.

When Holemans envisioned the rudder, he realized that traditional
machining techniques would create a
grainy
  
adj. grain·i·er, grain·i·est
1. Made of or resembling grain; granular.

2. Resembling the grain of wood.

3. Having a granular appearance due to the clumping of particles in the emulsion.
 surface that would increase
drag. So Holemans considered printing a mold. He could pour in his
material, and pop it out once it dried.

"I realized I could print the mold and then thought,
'well I could just print the rudder,'" Holemans says.
"I could print parts that would be impossible to machine."

In the end, Holemans didn't just print his rudder. He printed
much of the rest of the boat as well. The sleek, unpiloted
catamaran
 , watercraft made up of two connected hulls or a single hull with two parallel keels. Originally used by the natives of Polynesia, the catamaran design was adopted by Western boat builders in the 19th cent.
 has
two 8-foot-long torpedo-shaped hulls connected by a crossbar, atop which
sits a 6-foot plastic sail. Powered by the sun and wind, the Robotboat
has a self-righting mechanism so it can get itself sailing again after
flipping in roiling waves. It is also equipped with GPS and sensors so
it "knows" where it is going. For now, the boat serves as a
prototype that is being tested on real-world waterways. Eventually,
Holemans and his team intend to send fleets of boats out on the oceans
to gather data on oil spills,
carbon dioxide
 chemical compound, CO2, a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is about one and one-half times as dense as air under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure.
 and marine life, or perhaps
to patrol for pirates.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Prototypes to products

Engineers and product developers have long used 3-D printing for
creating prototypes. Once engineers settled on a final design,
production would move to factories, typically with assembly lines or
expensive injection molding machines that had to create tens of
thousands of plastic containers or toy parts to justify the costs.

The plummeting cost of 3-D printing changes all that. Businesses
don't have to invest huge amounts of money and then keep their
fingers crossed that they'll be able to sell 25,000 toy trucks.
They can make 50 and, if the product sells, they can make 50 more. This
shift in the scale of production may bring manufacturing jobs back to
countries that have shipped labor elsewhere, albeit quite different jobs
than the ones that were lost.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

"It's becoming a solution for manufacturing" says
Terry Wohlers, head of Wohlers Associates, a consulting agency based in
Fort Collins, Colo., that has been keeping an eye on the additive
manufacturing sector for more than 25 years.

Small-scale manufacturers, Many born of a subculture of
technology-oriented do-it-yourselfers who call themselves
"makers," have been at the forefront of the 3-D printing
charge. Colleen Jordan makes houseplants portable by creating tiny
planters that can be worn as jewelry or attached to a bike frame.
Sculptor Bathsheba Grossman is known for her Klein bottle opener, an
intricate Escher-like piece that illustrates principles of topology and
also opens beverages.

Many of these businesses rely on retail print shops such as
i.materialise and Sculpteo to bring their designs to life. Some of the
shops tailor their services to specific communities, or specialize in
particular sizes and materials. Holemans sent his Robotboat design to
RedEye, a division of Stratasys, which has long printed prototypes for
the aerospace, engineering and medical industries. Business is booming
for these 3-D printing subcontractors: Shapeways, another shop, recently
christened a 25,000-square-foot space in Queens, N.Y., that will house
30 to 50 high-definition, industrial-sized 3-D printers.

While makers are leading the pack, some major companies, including
Airbus, have also embraced the technology. Because 3-D printing often
eliminates the need for things like fasteners, printed products often
weigh less than their traditionally manufactured counterparts. Airbus
has started printing some components of its cabins, and by 2050, the
company hopes to print entire planes.

Governments have also taken note. Last August, the Obama
administration announced the launch of the National Additive
Manufacturing Innovation Institute, part of a larger effort to create A
"manufacturing belt" in the nation. The pilot institute,
designated for Youngstown, Ohio, is funded by
NASA
 see National Aeronautics and Space Administration.


NASA
 in full National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Independent U.S.
, the National Science
Foundation, and the departments of Defense, Energy and Commerce. It will
support bringing additive manufacturing technologies into industrial and
academic labs, as well as training programs for manufacturers to try out
3-D printing materials and machines.

The European Union is pushing investment in 3-D printing
technologies, according to a report by Reuters last fall based on leaked
documents, as part of an effort to boost manufacturing output from 16
percent of its
GDP
 (guanosine diphosphate): see guanine.
 to 20 percent by 2020. And last October, the United
Kingdom announced its intention to invest the equivalent of more than
$10 million in grants for research and development of 3-D printing
technologies.

A market of one

The proliferation of 3-D printing has consequences that go beyond
shifts in supply chains and manufacturing. The technology may also
change how we create, use and think about products. Because making a
batch of one is no longer cost prohibitive, any product can be tailored
to an individual consumer. Commonplace objects can be customized. While
a large manufacturing plant wouldn't make 10,000 smartphone cases
embedded with an imprint of your child's hand, now, you can make
that case. And 9,999 other people can make smartphone cases embedded
with imprints of their children's hands.

Pearce envisions a future in which many homes will have a 3-D
printer, and items such as dinner plates, coat hooks, shoes and clothing
will be printed
as needed
 prn. See prn order.
. (Couture 3-D printed clothing and shoes
already exist.) But these won't be ordinary accessories. They will
be custom designed to fit the needs and aesthetics of a particular
person or family.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

3-D printing's real power is not in making things you can buy,
but in making things you can't buy. You can scratch your own itch,
says Pearce. "Anything that's remotely customizable, 3-D
printing is going to win out. You can do fantastic things." That
customization extends beyond ordinary items tweaked to meet your fancy.
It also extends to truly revolutionary products that would be
unthinkable in a mass-production manufacturing economy. Consider the
medical applications: Last year, engineers created a robotic
exoskeleton
 /exo·skel·e·ton/ () a hard structure formed on the outside of the body, as a crustacean's shell; in vertebrates, applied to structures produced by the epidermis, as hair, nails, hoofs, teeth, etc.
 for a 2-year-old girl with
arthrogryposis
 /ar·thro·gry·po·sis/ () persistent flexure of a joint.


n.
1. The permanent fixation of a joint in a contracted position.
 multiplex congenita, a
condition that makes it difficult for her to move on her own. Now she
can play with her toys and hug her morn. Another engineer created a

prosthetic

adj.
1. Serving as or relating to a prosthesis.

2. Of or relating to prosthetics.



prosthetic

serving as a substitute; pertaining to prostheses or to prosthetics.
 beak for a bald eagle named Beauty, whose own beak was
mangled when she was shot in the face. Doctors and engineers are even
experimenting with 3-D printing to create artificial cartilage, livers
and kidneys.

Wohlers notes that more than 80,000 custom titanium parts for
replacement hips have been printed. "The day may come when we
really can print a new finger for someone," he says.

Of course, there will also be a proliferation of mundane,
lighthearted products. And there's nothing wrong with that:
Computers have had an enormous impact on society, no matter how much we
use them to make and watch videos of cats.

Explore more

* Thingiverse: www.thingiverse.com

* RepRapwiki: www.reprap.org

A vision realized For about $1,000, anyone can buy a 3-D printer
that builds objects layer by layer out of plastic. More expensive
machines can handle metals, ceramics and other custom materials. The
user starts by drafting an object with computer-aided design software.
The machine then starts to build the object by depositing the material
one layer at a time. Some machines spray or squeeze layers of liquid or
powder that harden into a solid (shown). Others use heat, lasers or
binders to fuse grains of loose powder into solid layers.

1,000 dollars

Typical cost of a personal 3-D printer

300 percent

Approximate growth of personal 3-D printer sales in 2011

Planet of the 3-D printers

If you can make practically anything with a 3-D printer, why not
make more 3-D printers? The RepRap, short for replicating rapid
prototyper, was the brainchild of mechanical engineer Adrian
Bowyer
  
n.
1. One who makes or sells bows for archery.

2. Archaic An archer.
. He
and his colleagues at the University of Bath in England had long been
using 3-D printers--the $60,000 variety--for making
"one-offs," prototypes of things that mechanical engineers
use. Then Bowyer realized that he could harness the technology not just
for making prototypes, but for making more 3-D printers. Bowyer decided
to make the RepRap project open source. The printers are sold as kits or
fully assembled; anyone can tweak the hardware and upload new designs,
such as an improved hinge or attachable fan that cools layers as they
come out of the printer head. Since developing the first RepRap in 2007,
Bowyer's team has released multiple models, each named after a
famous biologist (Darwin, Mendel, Huxley, Wallace), in keeping with the
idea of replication and evolution. Bowyer estimates that there are
upwards of 30,000 RepRaps in existence today. But he can't be sure,
since anyone who owns one can print another.--Rachel Ehrenberg

The dark side of 3-D printing

There have always been ways to create makeshift weapons, reproduce
keys or counterfeit drugs. But 3-D printing may make such feats a lot
simpler. A number of people have already printed gun parts; the
collective Defense Distributed, led by
University of Texas at Austin

 law
student Cody Wilson, aims to create blueprints for a fully printable
firearm and make those files widely available. When MakerBot's
website Thingiverse removed weapon-related designs from its site last
year, Defense Distributed created DEFCAD, where people can upload (and
download) files for printing gun parts, such as a 30-round gun magazine
and a grip for an AR-15 semiautomatic rifle. Guns aren't the only
printed items raising eyebrows: At a hackers' workshop last summer,
a German security consultant unlocked two widely-used brands of police
handcuffs with keys that he had made multiple copies of using a 3-D
printer. And scientists recently reported using a 3-D printer for making
"reaction-ware," customized polymer containers that make
particular chemical reactions run with ease. Such innovations could make
life easier for
illicit drug
 Street drug, see there
 manufacturers, terrorists or others with
ill intent.

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