Flat Glass

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LOOK Flat Bottom Egg Shaped 3 7 8 x 3 7 8 Convex Clock Glass NOS E159d
look flat bottom egg shaped 3 7 8 x 3 7 8 convex clock glass nos e159d
$16.95
quality
NOS 4 1 8 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Swartchild Brand D075f
nos 4 1 8 round flat replacement alarm clock glass swartchild brand d075f
$8.95
quality
NOS WESTCLOX BABY BEN No 3 FLAT GLASS CLOCK PARTS RR201
nos westclox baby ben no 3 flat glass clock parts rr201
$12.99
quality
Westclox Vintage Kitchen Wall Clock White Classic Round Flat Glass Lens Battery
westclox vintage kitchen wall clock white classic round flat glass lens battery
$36.28
quality
NOS 4 1 8x6 3 4 Banner Shape Flat Replace Alarm Clock Glass With Writing D191h
nos 4 1 8x6 3 4 banner shape flat replace alarm clock glass with writing d191h
$8.95
quality
NOS 8x8 Square Flat Replace Alarm Clock Ornate Black And Gold Glass D191e
nos 8x8 square flat replace alarm clock ornate black and gold glass d191e
$19.95
quality
NOS 3 7 16 Round Beveled Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass D191i
nos 3 7 16 round beveled flat replacement alarm clock glass d191i
$6.25
quality
NOS 3 5 8x4 5 16 Rectangular Flat Replace Alarm Clock Glass D191f
nos 3 5 8x4 5 16 rectangular flat replace alarm clock glass d191f
$9.95
quality
NOS 2 9 16 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E309d
nos 2 9 16 round flat replacement alarm clock glass e309d
$6.95
quality
NOS 2 7 16 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E309f
nos 2 7 16 round flat replacement alarm clock glass e309f
$6.25
quality
NOS 1 15 16 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E309i CLEARANCE
nos 1 15 16 round flat replacement alarm clock glass e309i clearance
$4.45
quality
NOS 3 3 8 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E431b
nos 3 3 8 round flat replacement alarm clock glass e431b
$6.95
quality
NOS 5 1 16 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E422d
nos 5 1 16 round flat replacement alarm clock glass e422d
$9.95
quality
NOS 5 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E224g
nos 5 round flat replacement alarm clock glass e224g
$9.95
quality
NOS 5 1 16 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E224h
nos 5 1 16 round flat replacement alarm clock glass e224h
$9.95
quality
NOS 4 7 16 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E224d
nos 4 7 16 round flat replacement alarm clock glass e224d
$9.95
quality
18 Pcs Square Convex  Flat CLOCK GLASS Various Sizes Parts Replacement Art
18 pcs square convex flat clock glass various sizes parts replacement art
$7.99
quality
NOS 4 1 8 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Craft Glass E224a
nos 4 1 8 round flat replacement alarm clock craft glass e224a
$8.95
quality
NEW OLD STOCK 5 7 8 FLAT CLOCK GLASS ST226
new old stock 5 7 8 flat clock glass st226
$9.99
quality
5 3 16 Square Flat Clock Glass or for Picture Frame or Art Craft E403c
5 3 16 square flat clock glass or for picture frame or art craft e403c
$7.20
quality
Thick NOS 3 half  x 3 5 8 Flat Clock Glass or Art Craft Photo Frame Glass E403d
thick nos 3 half x 3 5 8 flat clock glass or art craft photo frame glass e403d
$7.15
quality
Perfit 118 NOS 2 1 8 Square Flat Alarm Clock Glass Crystal Art Craft E403a
perfit 118 nos 2 1 8 square flat alarm clock glass crystal art craft e403a
$6.25
quality
NOS 4 Square Flat Clock Glass or Art Craft Photo Frame Glass E403e
nos 4 square flat clock glass or art craft photo frame glass e403e
$8.95
quality
2 3 16 x 2 3 16 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139e
2 3 16 x 2 3 16 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139e
$6.95
quality
NOS Thick 3 half  Square Flat Clock Glass 88mm Art Craft Photo Frame E33
nos thick 3 half square flat clock glass 88mm art craft photo frame e33
$6.25
quality
NOS Thick 3 half  x 6 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E261
nos thick 3 half x 6 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e261
$8.95
quality
3 3 16 x 4 5 8 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139b
3 3 16 x 4 5 8 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139b
$9.95
quality
3 1 16 x 3 3 8 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139c
3 1 16 x 3 3 8 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139c
$6.25
quality
4 x 5 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139a
4 x 5 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139a
$9.95
quality
2 13 16 x 3 1 8 Thick Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139d
2 13 16 x 3 1 8 thick flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139d
$6.25
quality
2 7 16 Flat Clock Glass Lot M176
2 7 16 flat clock glass lot m176
$7.99
quality
NOS FLAT Round Clock or Craft Glass 5 11 16 Dia 085 ThickNice Hand Cut Edge
nos flat round clock or craft glass 5 11 16 dia 085 thicknice hand cut edge
$5.99
quality
REPLACEMENT 8 FLAT 6 mm Thick INSTRUMENT GLASS PARTS WP185
replacement 8 flat 6 mm thick instrument glass parts wp185
$19.99
quality
USED 8 FLAT 6 mm Thick INSTRUMENT SHIPS COMPASS GLASS PARTS WP184
used 8 flat 6 mm thick instrument ships compass glass parts wp184
$12.99
quality
REPLACEMENT 8 1 16 FLAT 6 mm Thick INSTRUMENT GLASS PARTS WP183
replacement 8 1 16 flat 6 mm thick instrument glass parts wp183
$19.99
quality
REPLACEMENT 7 quarter  FLAT 6 mm thick INSTRUMENT GLASS PARTS WP182
replacement 7 quarter flat 6 mm thick instrument glass parts wp182
$19.99
quality
Westclox Vintage Kitchen Wall Clock White Classic Round Flat Glass Lens Battery
westclox vintage kitchen wall clock white classic round flat glass lens battery
$28.65
quality
NOS 2 11 16 Extra Thick 0110 Clock FLAT Round Clock GlassPolished Edge
nos 2 11 16 extra thick 0110 clock flat round clock glasspolished edge
$6.99
quality
NOS 244 62mmExtra Thin0061 FLAT Round Clock GlassFactory Cut
nos 244 62mmextra thin0061 flat round clock glassfactory cut
$6.99
quality
USED Fair Condition 1 7 848mmSquare Beveled Flat Clock Glass 189mm Thin
used fair condition 1 7 848mmsquare beveled flat clock glass 189mm thin
$5.00
quality
NOS FLAT Round Clock or Craft Glass 6 half  Dia 080 ThickNice Hand Cut Edge
nos flat round clock or craft glass 6 half dia 080 thicknice hand cut edge
$5.99
quality
9 quarter  FLAT BINNACLE GLASS WP83
9 quarter flat binnacle glass wp83
$19.99
quality
Vintage 4 1 8 Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M220
vintage 4 1 8 clock flat glass dial glass lot m220
$12.99
quality
Baby Ben Glass Face Cover Model Baby Ben No 3 flat glass models Westclox 2 7 16
baby ben glass face cover model baby ben no 3 flat glass models westclox 2 7 16
$5.00
quality
Old Oval Clock Glass Flat 3 5 16 x 2 quarter  Dial Glass Lot M228
old oval clock glass flat 3 5 16 x 2 quarter dial glass lot m228
$14.99
quality
REPLACEMENT 8 SQUARE FLAT SHIPS BINNACLE INSTRUMENT GLASS PARTS WP186
replacement 8 square flat ships binnacle instrument glass parts wp186
$23.99
quality
Vintage 2 5 8 Clock Glass Flat Dial Glass Lot M227
vintage 2 5 8 clock glass flat dial glass lot m227
$8.99
quality
2 7 16 Fits Baby Ben Old Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M230
2 7 16 fits baby ben old clock flat glass dial glass lot m230
$9.99
quality
2 9 16 Old Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M231
2 9 16 old clock flat glass dial glass lot m231
$8.99
quality
2 half  Old Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M229
2 half old clock flat glass dial glass lot m229
$8.99
quality
Vintage 2 3 4 Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M234
vintage 2 3 4 clock flat glass dial glass lot m234
$8.99
quality
2 11 16 Old Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M232
2 11 16 old clock flat glass dial glass lot m232
$8.99
quality
Vintage 2 5 8 Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M233
vintage 2 5 8 clock flat glass dial glass lot m233
$8.99
quality
NOS FLAT Round Clock or Craft Glass 6 7 8 Dia085 ThickNice Hand Cut Edge
nos flat round clock or craft glass 6 7 8 dia085 thicknice hand cut edge
$4.99
quality
NOS FLAT Round Clock or Craft Glass 6 3 4 Dia 085 ThickNice Hand Cut Edge
nos flat round clock or craft glass 6 3 4 dia 085 thicknice hand cut edge
$5.99
quality
NOS 2 7 16 FLAT CLOCK GLASS SV236
nos 2 7 16 flat clock glass sv236
$4.98
quality
NOS FLAT Round Clock or Craft Glass 6 15 16 Dia080ThickNice Hand Cut Edge
nos flat round clock or craft glass 6 15 16 dia080thicknice hand cut edge
$5.99
quality
NOS FLAT Real Clock Glass with Bezel 9 3 16 Dia Rear Screw Mount
nos flat real clock glass with bezel 9 3 16 dia rear screw mount
$10.99
quality
4 1 8 Flat Westclox Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D133h
4 1 8 flat westclox replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d133h
$8.95
quality
4 5 16 x 3 half  Rectangle Beveled Blue Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass D018d
4 5 16 x 3 half rectangle beveled blue flat replacement alarm clock glass d018d
$11.95
quality
2 NOS Flat Heavy HRC Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D099c
2 nos flat heavy hrc replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d099c
$8.95
quality
2 9 16 x 3 half  Flat Thin Oval Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf D099dd
2 9 16 x 3 half flat thin oval replacement alarm clock glass small shelf d099dd
$8.95
quality
2 1 8 NOS Flat Heavy Thick Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Art Deco D099aaaa
2 1 8 nos flat heavy thick replacement alarm clock glass art deco d099aaaa
$8.95
quality
4 11 16 NOS Flat Thin VTF Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Art Deco D107kk
4 11 16 nos flat thin vtf replacement alarm clock glass art deco d107kk
$8.05
quality
4 13 16 NOS Flat Heavy Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D107g
4 13 16 nos flat heavy replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d107g
$7.15
quality
2 9 16 square non flat bottom CLOCK GLASS Crystal
2 9 16 square non flat bottom clock glass crystal
$11.00
quality
3 3 4 x 3 1 8 rectangle non flat rounded bottom CLOCK GLASS Crystal
3 3 4 x 3 1 8 rectangle non flat rounded bottom clock glass crystal
$11.00
quality
New Old Stock 5 3 16 Brass Clock Bezel with Flat Glass parts repair D
new old stock 5 3 16 brass clock bezel with flat glass parts repair d
$9.99
quality
New Old Stock 5 9 16 Brass Clock Bezel with Flat Glass parts repair L
new old stock 5 9 16 brass clock bezel with flat glass parts repair l
$9.99
quality
4 quarter  Flat Rough Cut Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D131ff
4 quarter flat rough cut replacement clock glass small shelf art deco d131ff
$8.05
quality
4 1 8 Flat Swartchild Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D131b
4 1 8 flat swartchild replacement clock glass small shelf art deco d131b
$8.05
quality
4 3 16 Flat Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D131c
4 3 16 flat replacement clock glass small shelf art deco d131c
$8.95
quality
6 3 32 Flat Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco E151f
6 3 32 flat replacement clock glass small shelf art deco e151f
$9.85
quality
6 1 16 Flat Thick Replacement Clock Glass Polished Edge Small Shelf E151e
6 1 16 flat thick replacement clock glass polished edge small shelf e151e
$9.85
quality
6 9 16 Flat MJL Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco E151h
6 9 16 flat mjl replacement clock glass small shelf art deco e151h
$10.95
quality
6 1 16 Flat Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco E151d
6 1 16 flat replacement clock glass small shelf art deco e151d
$9.85
quality
4 3 4 Flat Rough Cut Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf D057aaaa
4 3 4 flat rough cut replacement alarm clock glass small shelf d057aaaa
$8.05
quality
3 1 8 Flat Rough Cut Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D057a
3 1 8 flat rough cut replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d057a
$8.05
quality

Vintage Clear Glass Flat Perfume Scent Decanter Bottle Stopper No Tax
vintage clear glass flat perfume scent decanter bottle stopper no tax
$28.99
quality
EARLY MILK GLASS SMOKE BELL +FLAT SHADE
early milk glass smoke bell +flat shade
$49.95
quality
Red Trade Beads Large Flat Ended Africa
red trade beads large flat ended africa
$125.00
quality
Flat Door Glass with Reverse Painting for Wall Clock 120
flat door glass with reverse painting for wall clock 120
$20.00
quality
GRIESEDIECK BROS FLAT TOP BEER CAN MENU MATCHBOOKS GLASS COASTERS AND MORE
griesedieck bros flat top beer can menu matchbooks glass coasters and more
$99.99
quality
Globe Electric 63872 1 Light Flat Modern Industrial Pendant Oil Rubbed Bronze
globe electric 63872 1 light flat modern industrial pendant oil rubbed bronze
$42.99
quality
Rare Flat 12 Brewery Glass Beer Growler Half Gallon
rare flat 12 brewery glass beer growler half gallon
$25.00
quality
Victorian White Horse Flat Glass Horse Bridle Rosette Made by Pfluegar
victorian white horse flat glass horse bridle rosette made by pfluegar
$52.00
quality
CLEAR GLASS FLAT PENNY STOPPER ANTIQUE PERFUME SCENT BOTTLES 21mm
clear glass flat penny stopper antique perfume scent bottles 21mm
$29.18
quality
Christmas Ornament Glass Ball Box Matte Flat Glossy Finish Purple 2 Lot of 9
christmas ornament glass ball box matte flat glossy finish purple 2 lot of 9
$24.89
quality
Antique Industrial 16 Flat Milk Glass Lamp Shade Hanging Pendant Steampunk Loft
antique industrial 16 flat milk glass lamp shade hanging pendant steampunk loft
$250.00
quality
VTG STEMMED ON THE ROCKS WINE ROUND FLAT BOTTOM GLASSES DESSERT DISHES 4 EUC
vtg stemmed on the rocks wine round flat bottom glasses dessert dishes 4 euc
$28.92
quality
LIBYAN DESERT GLASS translucent specimen flat shape with inclusions 92 g
libyan desert glass translucent specimen flat shape with inclusions 92 g
$27.99
quality
LIBYAN DESERT GLASS translucent specimen flat shape with inclusions 14 g
libyan desert glass translucent specimen flat shape with inclusions 14 g
$33.99
quality
Vintage Antique Flat Thin Milk Glass Industrial Style Lamp Fixture Shade
vintage antique flat thin milk glass industrial style lamp fixture shade
$38.99
quality
ANCHOR HOCKING GLASS RIO Costal Blue Tumbler 16oz Flat Drinking Tea Glass 6
anchor hocking glass rio costal blue tumbler 16oz flat drinking tea glass 6
$25.00
quality
Button Trade Beads Green Flat Ended Africa
button trade beads green flat ended africa
$29.00
quality
Vtg Set of 2 Large 16 flat round Glass Ceiling Light Shades Replacements
vtg set of 2 large 16 flat round glass ceiling light shades replacements
$29.99
quality
Samburu Trade Beads White Flat Ended Africa
samburu trade beads white flat ended africa
$22.00
quality
5X New Creative Household Decoration handmade Pastoral Flat Vase Height 100mm MX
5x new creative household decoration handmade pastoral flat vase height 100mm mx
$105.01
quality
2 Unbranded Clear Glass Apothecary Drug Store Bottle Jar  Flat Ground Stoppers
2 unbranded clear glass apothecary drug store bottle jar flat ground stoppers
$40.00
quality
Large Industrial White Milk Glass Flat Shade
large industrial white milk glass flat shade
$45.00
quality
Vintage Industrial Flat Round White Milk Glass Hanging Shade 9 3 4
vintage industrial flat round white milk glass hanging shade 9 3 4
$34.99
quality
Trade Beads Coral Color Flat End Africa
trade beads coral color flat end africa
$25.00
quality
Kopp Glass Lens Filter Flat Set Red Blue Orange Amethyst Traffic Railroad Stage
kopp glass lens filter flat set red blue orange amethyst traffic railroad stage
$25.00
quality
10 Hobnail Student Shade White Opal Milk Glass Flat Top Oil Lamp Hurricane
10 hobnail student shade white opal milk glass flat top oil lamp hurricane
$47.95
quality
Flat Ended Venetian Trade Beads Blue 140 Strand
flat ended venetian trade beads blue 140 strand
$24.99
quality
Flat Ended Venetian Trade Beads Blue 113 Strand
flat ended venetian trade beads blue 113 strand
$29.00
quality

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Flat Glass

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SCHOTT Flat Glass (englisch)

A Short History of Glass

Glass is naturally formed when certain types of rocks melt as a result of high-temperatures such as volcanic eruptions, lightning strikes or the impact of meteorites, and then cools and solidify rapidly.

According to Roman historians they became aware of the existence of glass accidentally in the region of Syria around 5000 BC. This short history looks at the birth and evolution of man-made glass and the new developments in smart glass.

Glass beads are thought to be the earliest man-made glass they were mainly opaque and are thought to date back to around 3500 BC. They have been found in Egypt and Eastern Mesopotamia. The oldest fragments of glass vases date back to 1600 BC and were found in Mesopotamia.

Egyptian craftsmen are thought to have begun developing a method for producing glass pots around 1500 BC by dipping a core mould of compressed sand into molten glass and then turning the mould so that molten glass adhered to it. There is not much evidence of further advancement until the 900 BC. Over the following 500 years glass production centred on Alessandria from where it is thought to have spread to Italy.

The first glassmaking manual dates back to around 650 BC. A major breakthrough in glassmaking was the discovery of glassblowing some time between 27 BC and AD 14, attributed to Syrian craftsmen. The long thin metal tube used in the blowing process has changed very little since then.

The Romans spread glassmaking technologies the result of their conquests. During the reign of the emperor Augustus, glass objects began to appear throughout Italy, in France, Germany and Switzerland. It was the Romans who began to use glass for architectural purposes, with the discovery of clear glass. Cast glass windows with poor optical qualities began to appear in the most important buildings in.

Archaeological excavations on the island of Torcello near Venice, Italy, have unearthed objects from the late 7th and early 8th centuries which bear witness to the transition from ancient to early Middle Ages production of glass.

Towards the years 1000 AD significant changes in European glassmaking techniques took place. Given the difficulties in importing raw materials, soda glass was gradually replaced by glass made using the potash obtained from the burning of trees.

The 11th century saw the development by German glass craftsmen of a technique - then further developed by Venetian craftsmen in the 13th century - for the production of glass sheets. By blowing a hollow glass sphere and swinging it vertically, gravity would pull the glass into a cylindrical "pod" measuring as much as 3 metres long, with a width of up to 45 cm. While still hot, the ends of the pod were cut off and the resultant cylinder cut lengthways and laid horizontal. The panes thus created would then be joined with lead strips and pieced together to create windows. Glazing remained, however, a great luxury up to the late Middle Ages, with royal palaces and churches the most likely buildings to have glass windows. Stained glass windows reached their height as the Middle Ages drew to a close.

In 1688, in France, a new method was developed for the production of plate glass, principally for use in mirrors, whose optical merits had, until then, left much to be desired. The molten glass was poured onto a special table and rolled out flat. After cooling, the plate glass was ground on large round tables by means of rotating cast iron discs and increasingly fine abrasive sands, and then polished using felt disks. The result of this plate pouring process was flat glass with good optical transmission qualities. When coated on one side with a reflective metal high-quality mirrors could be produced.

It was not until the later stages of the Industrial Revolution that mechanical technology for mass production and in-depth scientific research into the relationship between the composition of glass and its physical qualities began to appear in the industry.

A key figure and one of the forefathers of contemporary glass research was the German scientist Otto Schott, who used scientific methods to study the effects of various chemical elements on the optical and thermal properties of glass. In the field of optical glass, Schott teamed up with Ernst Abbe, to make important technological advances.

In the production of flat glass the first real innovation came in 1905 when a Belgian, (Fourcault), managed to vertically draw a continuous sheet of glass of a consistent width from the tank. Commercial production of sheet glass using the Fourcault process eventually got under way in 1914. An off-shoot of evolution in flat glass production was the strengthening of glass by means of lamination.

The float process developed after 1945 by Pilkington combined the brilliant finish of sheet glass with the optical qualities of plate glass.

Now glass production has taken another great leap forward, privacy glass is the newest and currently most upmarket glass available. With only a touch of a remote control or the turn of a dial the glass can be made to change opacity. New glass windows on office blocks can be set to let in less light as the sun becomes stronger saving on air-conditioning costs.

During the last 5500 years glass has come a long way and we just take it for granted now.

About the Author
SmartGlass International are manufactors and suppliers of privacy glass and architectural glass. they have office in the UK and Ireland.

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