Flat Glass

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5 3 16 Square Flat Clock Glass or for Picture Frame or Art Craft E403c
5 3 16 square flat clock glass or for picture frame or art craft e403c
$8.00
quality
Thick NOS 3 half  x 3 5 8 Flat Clock Glass or Art Craft Photo Frame Glass E403d
thick nos 3 half x 3 5 8 flat clock glass or art craft photo frame glass e403d
$7.95
quality
Perfit 118 NOS 2 1 8 Square Flat Alarm Clock Glass Crystal Art Craft E403a
perfit 118 nos 2 1 8 square flat alarm clock glass crystal art craft e403a
$6.95
quality
NOS 4 Square Flat Clock Glass or Art Craft Photo Frame Glass E403e
nos 4 square flat clock glass or art craft photo frame glass e403e
$9.95
quality
2 3 16 x 2 3 16 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139e
2 3 16 x 2 3 16 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139e
$6.95
quality
NOS Thick 3 half  Square Flat Clock Glass 88mm Art Craft Photo Frame E33
nos thick 3 half square flat clock glass 88mm art craft photo frame e33
$6.95
quality
NOS Thick 3 half  x 6 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E261
nos thick 3 half x 6 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e261
$9.95
quality
3 3 16 x 4 5 8 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139b
3 3 16 x 4 5 8 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139b
$9.95
quality
3 1 16 x 3 3 8 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139c
3 1 16 x 3 3 8 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139c
$6.95
quality
4 x 5 Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139a
4 x 5 flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139a
$9.95
quality
2 13 16 x 3 1 8 Thick Flat Rectangle Clock Glass Art Craft Photo Frame E139d
2 13 16 x 3 1 8 thick flat rectangle clock glass art craft photo frame e139d
$6.95
quality
4 quarter  Flat Beveled Glass for Clock Restoration Repair
4 quarter flat beveled glass for clock restoration repair
$9.99
quality
2 7 16 Flat Clock Glass Lot M176
2 7 16 flat clock glass lot m176
$7.99
quality
NOS FLAT Round Clock or Craft Glass 5 11 16 Dia 085 ThickNice Hand Cut Edge
nos flat round clock or craft glass 5 11 16 dia 085 thicknice hand cut edge
$5.99
quality
REPLACEMENT 8 FLAT 6 mm Thick INSTRUMENT GLASS PARTS WP185
replacement 8 flat 6 mm thick instrument glass parts wp185
$16.99
quality
USED 8 FLAT 6 mm Thick INSTRUMENT SHIPS COMPASS GLASS PARTS WP184
used 8 flat 6 mm thick instrument ships compass glass parts wp184
$12.99
quality
REPLACEMENT 8 1 16 FLAT 6 mm Thick INSTRUMENT GLASS PARTS WP183
replacement 8 1 16 flat 6 mm thick instrument glass parts wp183
$16.99
quality
REPLACEMENT 7 quarter  FLAT 6 mm thick INSTRUMENT GLASS PARTS WP182
replacement 7 quarter flat 6 mm thick instrument glass parts wp182
$16.99
quality
Genuine Westclox Replacement FLAT Glass4 1 8 Dia075 Thick6312 6 6 15 49 5M
genuine westclox replacement flat glass4 1 8 dia075 thick6312 6 6 15 49 5m
$6.99
quality
Antique 5 5 8 Diameter Brass Mantel Clock Bezel with Flat Glass
antique 5 5 8 diameter brass mantel clock bezel with flat glass
$9.99
quality
Vintage Clock Door and Face Glass Replacemet 1 Lot of 5 Pieces Flat Convex
vintage clock door and face glass replacemet 1 lot of 5 pieces flat convex
$18.80
quality
NOS 2 11 16 Extra Thick 0110 Clock FLAT Round Clock GlassPolished Edge
nos 2 11 16 extra thick 0110 clock flat round clock glasspolished edge
$6.99
quality
NOS 244 62mmExtra Thin0061 FLAT Round Clock GlassFactory Cut
nos 244 62mmextra thin0061 flat round clock glassfactory cut
$6.99
quality
USED Fair Condition 1 7 848mmSquare Beveled Flat Clock Glass 189mm Thin
used fair condition 1 7 848mmsquare beveled flat clock glass 189mm thin
$5.00
quality
NOS FLAT Round Clock or Craft Glass 6 half  Dia 080 ThickNice Hand Cut Edge
nos flat round clock or craft glass 6 half dia 080 thicknice hand cut edge
$5.99
quality
Waltham Flat frame Banjo Clock Throat with Glass
waltham flat frame banjo clock throat with glass
$50.00
quality
Waltham Flat Frame Banjo Clock Door with Original Glass
waltham flat frame banjo clock door with original glass
$50.00
quality
9 quarter  FLAT BINNACLE GLASS WP83
9 quarter flat binnacle glass wp83
$16.99
quality
International Silver Ridged Edge Crystal Glass Flat Mantle Quartz Clock
international silver ridged edge crystal glass flat mantle quartz clock
$20.00
quality
Vintage 4 1 8 Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M220
vintage 4 1 8 clock flat glass dial glass lot m220
$12.99
quality
Small Flat Bezel Glass 455
small flat bezel glass 455
$10.00
quality
NOS 4 1 8 Swartzchild Round Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Craft Glass D307d
nos 4 1 8 swartzchild round flat replacement alarm clock craft glass d307d
$9.95
quality
Flat Round Replacement Clock Glass 6
flat round replacement clock glass 6
$3.00
quality
REPLACEMENT 8 SQUARE FLAT SHIPS BINNACLE INSTRUMENT GLASS PARTS WP186
replacement 8 square flat ships binnacle instrument glass parts wp186
$25.49
quality
Old Oval Clock Glass Flat 3 5 16 x 2 quarter  Dial Glass Lot M228
old oval clock glass flat 3 5 16 x 2 quarter dial glass lot m228
$14.99
quality
Vintage 2 5 8 Clock Glass Flat Dial Glass Lot M227
vintage 2 5 8 clock glass flat dial glass lot m227
$8.99
quality
2 9 16 Old Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M231
2 9 16 old clock flat glass dial glass lot m231
$8.99
quality
2 7 16 Fits Baby Ben Old Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M230
2 7 16 fits baby ben old clock flat glass dial glass lot m230
$9.99
quality
Vintage 2 3 4 Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M234
vintage 2 3 4 clock flat glass dial glass lot m234
$8.99
quality
2 11 16 Old Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M232
2 11 16 old clock flat glass dial glass lot m232
$8.99
quality
2 half  Old Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M229
2 half old clock flat glass dial glass lot m229
$8.99
quality
Vintage 2 5 8 Clock Flat Glass Dial Glass Lot M233
vintage 2 5 8 clock flat glass dial glass lot m233
$8.99
quality
NOS FLAT Round Clock or Craft Glass 6 7 8 Dia085 ThickNice Hand Cut Edge
nos flat round clock or craft glass 6 7 8 dia085 thicknice hand cut edge
$5.99
quality
NOS 2 7 16 FLAT CLOCK GLASS SV236
nos 2 7 16 flat clock glass sv236
$4.98
quality
NOS FLAT Round Clock or Craft Glass 6 15 16 Dia080ThickNice Hand Cut Edge
nos flat round clock or craft glass 6 15 16 dia080thicknice hand cut edge
$5.99
quality
NOS FLAT Real Clock Glass with Bezel 9 3 16 Dia Rear Screw Mount
nos flat real clock glass with bezel 9 3 16 dia rear screw mount
$10.99
quality
4 1 8 Flat Westclox Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D133h
4 1 8 flat westclox replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d133h
$8.95
quality
4 5 16 x 3 half  Rectangle Beveled Blue Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass D018d
4 5 16 x 3 half rectangle beveled blue flat replacement alarm clock glass d018d
$11.95
quality
2 NOS Flat Heavy HRC Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D099c
2 nos flat heavy hrc replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d099c
$8.95
quality
2 1 8 NOS Flat Heavy Thick Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Art Deco D099aaaa
2 1 8 nos flat heavy thick replacement alarm clock glass art deco d099aaaa
$8.95
quality
4 11 16 NOS Flat Thin VTF Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Art Deco D107kk
4 11 16 nos flat thin vtf replacement alarm clock glass art deco d107kk
$8.95
quality
4 13 16 NOS Flat Heavy Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D107g
4 13 16 nos flat heavy replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d107g
$7.95
quality
Ansonia Clock Dial  Bezel Flat Glass Beveled 5 3 4 Inch Small Ding In Bevel ORG
ansonia clock dial bezel flat glass beveled 5 3 4 inch small ding in bevel org
$59.99
quality
4 quarter  Flat Rough Cut Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D131ff
4 quarter flat rough cut replacement clock glass small shelf art deco d131ff
$8.95
quality
4 1 8 Flat Swartchild Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D131b
4 1 8 flat swartchild replacement clock glass small shelf art deco d131b
$8.95
quality
4 3 16 Flat Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D131c
4 3 16 flat replacement clock glass small shelf art deco d131c
$8.95
quality
6 3 32 Flat Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco E151f
6 3 32 flat replacement clock glass small shelf art deco e151f
$10.95
quality
6 1 16 Flat Thick Replacement Clock Glass Polished Edge Small Shelf E151e
6 1 16 flat thick replacement clock glass polished edge small shelf e151e
$10.95
quality
6 9 16 Flat MJL Replacement Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco E151h
6 9 16 flat mjl replacement clock glass small shelf art deco e151h
$10.95
quality
4 3 4 Flat Rough Cut Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf D057aaaa
4 3 4 flat rough cut replacement alarm clock glass small shelf d057aaaa
$8.95
quality
3 1 8 Flat Rough Cut Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D057a
3 1 8 flat rough cut replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d057a
$8.95
quality
3 NOS Flat Heavy HRC Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D057b
3 nos flat heavy hrc replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d057b
$8.95
quality
3 15 16 Flat Rough Cut Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf D057ddd
3 15 16 flat rough cut replacement alarm clock glass small shelf d057ddd
$8.95
quality
3 29 32 Flat Rough Cut Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf D057dd
3 29 32 flat rough cut replacement alarm clock glass small shelf d057dd
$8.95
quality
3 3 32 NOS Flat Heavy Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D057e
3 3 32 nos flat heavy replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d057e
$8.95
quality
3 31 32 Flat Rough Cut Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Art Deco D057d
3 31 32 flat rough cut replacement alarm clock glass small shelf art deco d057d
$8.95
quality
3 7 8 NOS Flat Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Punk Art Deco D057ggg
3 7 8 nos flat replacement alarm clock glass small shelf punk art deco d057ggg
$8.95
quality
4 NOS Flat Heavy Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Punk Art Deco D057h
4 nos flat heavy replacement alarm clock glass small shelf punk art deco d057h
$8.95
quality
4 Flat Rough Cut Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Punk Art Deco D057k
4 flat rough cut replacement alarm clock glass small shelf punk art deco d057k
$8.95
quality
4 NOS Flat Thin Replacement Alarm Clock Glass Small Shelf Punk Art Deco D057j
4 nos flat thin replacement alarm clock glass small shelf punk art deco d057j
$8.95
quality
5 11 16 Old Clock Glass Flat Dial Glass Lot M270
5 11 16 old clock glass flat dial glass lot m270
$12.99
quality
5 7 8 Old Clock Glass Flat Dial Glass Lot M269
5 7 8 old clock glass flat dial glass lot m269
$12.99
quality
USED 10 half  DIAMETER ROUND BRASS RIMMED HINGED GLASS CLOCK CASE DOOR FLAT GLASS
used 10 half diameter round brass rimmed hinged glass clock case door flat glass
$24.78
quality
Old 4 11 16 Dia Vintage Clock Glass Flat Dial Glass Lot M284
old 4 11 16 dia vintage clock glass flat dial glass lot m284
$12.99
quality
NOS 2 15 16 VTF Round And Flat Beveled Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E232g
nos 2 15 16 vtf round and flat beveled replacement alarm clock glass e232g
$8.95
quality
NOS 3 7 16 Round Flat Beveled Replacement Alarm Clock Glass E232d
nos 3 7 16 round flat beveled replacement alarm clock glass e232d
$8.95
quality
NOS 3 9 16 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Or Mantle Clock Glass E385d
nos 3 9 16 round flat replacement alarm or mantle clock glass e385d
$8.95
quality
NOS 4 3 16 Round Flat Replacement Alarm Or Mantle Clock Glass E385c
nos 4 3 16 round flat replacement alarm or mantle clock glass e385c
$11.95
quality

5 HEAVY GLASS TOBACCO HAND PIPE SPOON BOWL FLAT MOUTH PIECE YELLOW 3screenfree
5 heavy glass tobacco hand pipe spoon bowl flat mouth piece yellow 3screenfree
$22.99
quality
FOOTROT FLATS TALL BEER GLASS MURRAY BALL RARE
footrot flats tall beer glass murray ball rare
$29.69
quality
Samburu Flat Ended Venetian Trade Beads White Kenya Africa
samburu flat ended venetian trade beads white kenya africa
$22.00
quality
Large Antique 17 Flat Milk Glass Reflector Pendant Light Fixture Works
large antique 17 flat milk glass reflector pendant light fixture works
$190.00
quality
Modernist Flat Glass Buffalo Bison Standing Sculpture Standing Paperweight
modernist flat glass buffalo bison standing sculpture standing paperweight
$27.00
quality
Elegant Glass Flat Hand Oil Lamps Pair Gold ClearAcorn Burners 5 D x 2 half T
elegant glass flat hand oil lamps pair gold clearacorn burners 5 d x 2 half t
$39.95
quality
Vintage Cake Stand Pressed Glass Large 6 3 4 Tall Flat Surface Laurel Leaf Rim
vintage cake stand pressed glass large 6 3 4 tall flat surface laurel leaf rim
$39.95
quality
Large Ribbed Crystal Perfume Bottle with Large Round Flat Ribbed Stopper
large ribbed crystal perfume bottle with large round flat ribbed stopper
$26.00
quality
Star Diamond VL 10 Vibrating Flat Lap for Lapidary  Glass to sand and polish
star diamond vl 10 vibrating flat lap for lapidary glass to sand and polish
$99.99
quality
Tortoise Shell Trade Beads Rare Flat Brown Africa 40 Inch
tortoise shell trade beads rare flat brown africa 40 inch
$285.00
quality
Vintage Glass Punch Bowl Ladle Specialty Flat Bottom
vintage glass punch bowl ladle specialty flat bottom
$26.00
quality
Pair glass Candy dish Flat gold gilt Amber MCM Hollywood Regency Dish Bowl
pair glass candy dish flat gold gilt amber mcm hollywood regency dish bowl
$23.99
quality
Red Trade Beads Large Flat Ended Africa
red trade beads large flat ended africa
$125.00
quality
Avon Ruby Red Glass Cape Cod Pitcher Tumbler Set Pitcher 6 Flat Water Tumblers
avon ruby red glass cape cod pitcher tumbler set pitcher 6 flat water tumblers
$29.99
quality
VTG Glass Ceiling Light Shade Flat White With Ribs Circles  Bumps 8 3 8 Dia
vtg glass ceiling light shade flat white with ribs circles bumps 8 3 8 dia
$74.99
quality
VTG Rippled Clear Flat Round Glass Flask 248 Footed Neck Screw Top Unique OOAK
vtg rippled clear flat round glass flask 248 footed neck screw top unique ooak
$24.95
quality
Waltham Flat Frame Banjo Clock Door with Original Glass
waltham flat frame banjo clock door with original glass
$50.00
quality
Waltham Flat frame Banjo Clock Throat with Glass
waltham flat frame banjo clock throat with glass
$50.00
quality
RARE ANTIQUE BRIDLE ROSETTE JAMES G BLAINEPRESCANDIDATE 1884THICK FLAT GLASS
rare antique bridle rosette james g blaineprescandidate 1884thick flat glass
$239.99
quality
5X New Creative Household Decoration handmade Pastoral Flat Vase Height 100mm MX
5x new creative household decoration handmade pastoral flat vase height 100mm mx
$108.74
quality
Slavic Treasures Ornament 2008 Flat Top Frankenstein Hand Blown Glass Poland S6
slavic treasures ornament 2008 flat top frankenstein hand blown glass poland s6
$28.00
quality
Antique 40s Sinclair Farm Products Metal Globe Body W Flat Glass Decals
antique 40s sinclair farm products metal globe body w flat glass decals
$950.00
quality
ANTIQUE 10 INCH HEADLIGHT CASE BEZEL ASSEMBLY WITH FLAT GLASS LENS RAT ROD
antique 10 inch headlight case bezel assembly with flat glass lens rat rod
$59.18
quality
Westing 18 Flat Industrial Light Shade Kopp Glass Convex Lens Street OD Barn
westing 18 flat industrial light shade kopp glass convex lens street od barn
$50.00
quality
Trade Beads Blue Flat Ended Africa 28 Inch
trade beads blue flat ended africa 28 inch
$29.00
quality
THICK HEAVY CLEAR GLASS PUNCH BOWL LADLE W SPOUT FLAT BOTTOM  CURLED HANDLE 12
thick heavy clear glass punch bowl ladle w spout flat bottom curled handle 12
$28.49
quality
Antique GILL Co Inc Pat 1911 Rib Flat Industrial Pendant Lamp Shade 2 quarter
antique gill co inc pat 1911 rib flat industrial pendant lamp shade 2 quarter
$85.00
quality
Old vintage MAWS old fashioned flat feeding bottle of 40s London and Barnet
old vintage maws old fashioned flat feeding bottle of 40s london and barnet
$165.00
quality

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Flat Glass

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SCHOTT Flat Glass (englisch)

A Short History of Glass

Glass is naturally formed when certain types of rocks melt as a result of high-temperatures such as volcanic eruptions, lightning strikes or the impact of meteorites, and then cools and solidify rapidly.

According to Roman historians they became aware of the existence of glass accidentally in the region of Syria around 5000 BC. This short history looks at the birth and evolution of man-made glass and the new developments in smart glass.

Glass beads are thought to be the earliest man-made glass they were mainly opaque and are thought to date back to around 3500 BC. They have been found in Egypt and Eastern Mesopotamia. The oldest fragments of glass vases date back to 1600 BC and were found in Mesopotamia.

Egyptian craftsmen are thought to have begun developing a method for producing glass pots around 1500 BC by dipping a core mould of compressed sand into molten glass and then turning the mould so that molten glass adhered to it. There is not much evidence of further advancement until the 900 BC. Over the following 500 years glass production centred on Alessandria from where it is thought to have spread to Italy.

The first glassmaking manual dates back to around 650 BC. A major breakthrough in glassmaking was the discovery of glassblowing some time between 27 BC and AD 14, attributed to Syrian craftsmen. The long thin metal tube used in the blowing process has changed very little since then.

The Romans spread glassmaking technologies the result of their conquests. During the reign of the emperor Augustus, glass objects began to appear throughout Italy, in France, Germany and Switzerland. It was the Romans who began to use glass for architectural purposes, with the discovery of clear glass. Cast glass windows with poor optical qualities began to appear in the most important buildings in.

Archaeological excavations on the island of Torcello near Venice, Italy, have unearthed objects from the late 7th and early 8th centuries which bear witness to the transition from ancient to early Middle Ages production of glass.

Towards the years 1000 AD significant changes in European glassmaking techniques took place. Given the difficulties in importing raw materials, soda glass was gradually replaced by glass made using the potash obtained from the burning of trees.

The 11th century saw the development by German glass craftsmen of a technique - then further developed by Venetian craftsmen in the 13th century - for the production of glass sheets. By blowing a hollow glass sphere and swinging it vertically, gravity would pull the glass into a cylindrical "pod" measuring as much as 3 metres long, with a width of up to 45 cm. While still hot, the ends of the pod were cut off and the resultant cylinder cut lengthways and laid horizontal. The panes thus created would then be joined with lead strips and pieced together to create windows. Glazing remained, however, a great luxury up to the late Middle Ages, with royal palaces and churches the most likely buildings to have glass windows. Stained glass windows reached their height as the Middle Ages drew to a close.

In 1688, in France, a new method was developed for the production of plate glass, principally for use in mirrors, whose optical merits had, until then, left much to be desired. The molten glass was poured onto a special table and rolled out flat. After cooling, the plate glass was ground on large round tables by means of rotating cast iron discs and increasingly fine abrasive sands, and then polished using felt disks. The result of this plate pouring process was flat glass with good optical transmission qualities. When coated on one side with a reflective metal high-quality mirrors could be produced.

It was not until the later stages of the Industrial Revolution that mechanical technology for mass production and in-depth scientific research into the relationship between the composition of glass and its physical qualities began to appear in the industry.

A key figure and one of the forefathers of contemporary glass research was the German scientist Otto Schott, who used scientific methods to study the effects of various chemical elements on the optical and thermal properties of glass. In the field of optical glass, Schott teamed up with Ernst Abbe, to make important technological advances.

In the production of flat glass the first real innovation came in 1905 when a Belgian, (Fourcault), managed to vertically draw a continuous sheet of glass of a consistent width from the tank. Commercial production of sheet glass using the Fourcault process eventually got under way in 1914. An off-shoot of evolution in flat glass production was the strengthening of glass by means of lamination.

The float process developed after 1945 by Pilkington combined the brilliant finish of sheet glass with the optical qualities of plate glass.

Now glass production has taken another great leap forward, privacy glass is the newest and currently most upmarket glass available. With only a touch of a remote control or the turn of a dial the glass can be made to change opacity. New glass windows on office blocks can be set to let in less light as the sun becomes stronger saving on air-conditioning costs.

During the last 5500 years glass has come a long way and we just take it for granted now.

About the Author
SmartGlass International are manufactors and suppliers of privacy glass and architectural glass. they have office in the UK and Ireland.

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